**Typographical Note: As WordPress will not center pages or show proper mathematical signs, I have corrected in the blog, but may still be errors. Most critically, with exponentiation. Sorry.**

Following the introduction and experimental verification of the quantum mechanics of the early decades of this century, high-energy particle physicists have been able to theoretically unify the electromagnetic, weak and strong forces. The success of these grand unification theories (GUT) is based upon the realization that nature has disguised the unity between these forces in a special way–by making their strengths dependent upon the environments in which they are measured. The fundamental constants of nature describing these divergent forces have been found to vary in strength, not as a function of time or space, but as a function of temperature.

Living forms are built of fragile organic molecules, such as DNA and proteins, which can only exist at biological, i.e., cold temperatures. If we could re-experience the extremes of temperature and energy existing at the origin of our universe, our Ray of Creation, our Decade out of Nothing; we would quickly discover that the three “point-like” forces of the GUT are one and the same. The effects of temperature on these quantum forces are seen in figure 3. These forces give up their guise of being distinct when temperatures reach 1027 degrees Kelvin (degrees Kelvin equals degrees Centigrade + 273, e.g., 0 degrees Centigrade = 273 degrees Kelvin, 0 degrees Kelvin = -273 degrees Centigrade).

What is particularly interesting about this effect is that the forces existing between the fundamental building blocks thought to exist at the first moments of time (the X, W, Z bosons and their antiparticles, monopoles) essentially disappear such that a strange kind of chaos reigns–the creative waters, Father Nun, of the ancient Egyptians. This chaos is not the chaos of the modern proponents of a chaotic beginning to the universe in which the existing state of quiescence and isotropy is due to the damping effects of billions of years of friction during the expansion of the universe. Recent mathematical models simulating how the universe would unfold given realistic starting parameters for an initial chaos consistently produce extremely anisotropic and non-uniform universes quite unlike our own. Apparently the chaos giving birth to our universe is an unique chaos for it can only cause a very symmetrical radial outward expansion of the matter of the universe.

Recent theoretical work attempting to unify gravity with the other the strong-electro-weak force has come about with a new physical theory first introduced by Michael Green and John Schwarz called string theory. Previously, prior attempts at full unification failed because physicists assumed that the basic building blocks of nature were ‘point-like’ particles. The string theorists, like the ancient Rosicrucians, postulated that particles are actually composed of strings of energy, elastic-like loops of energy whose tension changes with temperature such that a low temperature the tension increases and the loops contract to points, at high temperatures they are more ‘string-like’. Using these postulates string theorists believe that at even higher temperatures, at least 10**32 degrees Kelvin, even gravity unifies (Figure 4). Unfortunately, proof is still to come since the mathematical formulations of these theories have been impossible to solve.

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TEMPERATURE EFFECTS FOR GUT

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Even though full unification has not as yet been achieved, the latest time after which the universe began at which all forces were unified is known, the Planck moment, 10**-43 seconds. This period is the unique time when gravity and the known quantum forces are of equal magnitude. The strength of gravity is described by Newton’s constant, G = 6.672 x 10-8 cm**3/gm-sec**2, the forces of quantum theory are described by Planck’s constant, h = 6.625 x 10-27 gm-cm**2/sec, and the electromagnetic forces are represented by the speed of light in a vacuum, c = 3.0 x 10**10 cm/sec.

These constants can be combined to create a unit of time as shown below,

**Planck’s time or t p = [ (G * h) / c**5]**0.5 = 1.33 x 10-43 seconds (5)**

At that moment, beyond which modern science has not found a door, the so called Kabbalistic Veil of the Negative Existence, the temperature was 10**32 degrees Kelvin and the density of matter was 10**92 times higher than that of water.(2)

Assuming that creation began as a point-like discontinuity within the quantum void expanding spherically, its maximum, visible radius at the Planck moment would have been only 4.06 x 10**-33 centimeters, i.e., the length a photon could travel within the Planck time (Planck time x speed of light or [G*h/c**3]**0.5). The amount of mass present is given by the expression [h*c/G]**0.5 and equals 5.44 x 10-5 grams, equivalent to about 2**65 hydrogen atoms (single proton and single electron).(3)

Based upon years of observation and measurement, cosmologists are able to provide reliable estimates concerning the size and the age of the visible universe. The spatial extent of the visible universe is defined as the distance over which light emitted from the most distant galaxy clusters has traveled to earth during the time the universe has been expanding. Careful observation over the past 60 years has demonstrated that the most distant galaxy clusters are moving away from us at quite high speeds (over 75,000 kilometer/sec or 7.5 x 10**9 cm/sec, where H0 = 75 km/sec/Mpc, a Mpc equals 3.086 x 10**24 cm or 3.26 x 10**6 light-years). More over, the rate of expansion increases in proportion to distance from the point of observation (Hubble’s Law). Based upon Hubble’s Law and several other measurement techniques (see Note #3 of Chapter 1), cosmologists estimate that the universe is about 4.7 x 1017 seconds old (15 billion years) and 4 x 10**27 centimeters in radius (defined as the distance from the center of the universe to the most distant star, distance to the light horizon is greater at 1.4 x 10**28 cm). Assuming that the visible universe has expanded as a spherical volume of increasing (volume = {(4/3)*pi * R**3}), the current volume of the visible universe is about 2.7 x 10**83 cubic centimeters in 3 space or collapsed 4 space.