Previously we stated that the quantum void must contain energy since it is a viable source for borrowing energy during particle exchange reactions. Moreover, once gravity is included in the energy balance of the universe the net energy of the manifested universe appears close to zero. This suggests that the energy of the quantum void is negative relative to the visible universe. Since this energy is not directly observable, but still is quantized, the frequency of the quanta of the void must be negative in polarity. Negative vibrations are difficult to conceive of.

The intensity of energy released is important to us since all changes of state require that a specific amount of energy to be added to the system over a specified time period. If we apply too little heat we can never cook our dinner, too much heat and the dinner burns. In this situation, energy of a high temperature is more intense than energy of a low temperature.

The third characteristic of energy concerns the quantity of energy potentially available from the source when used by a certain machine or apparatus, i.e., how many miles can you drive on a gallon of gasoline. Quantity of energy utilized is the basis of our gas and electrical bills for heat or cool or homes. The concepts of intensity and quantity are associated with the accumulation of energy by an apparatus.

2016 NOTE: Currently, I postulate that the true energy balance of the visible and invisible universe is exactly zero, both locally and globally. For this to be a reality, there must exist obverse rest matter, that is, quanta with rest mass less than zero. To possess rest mass less than zero demands that energy be negative forcing the existence of negative frequencies, i.e.,

ν = -E/h = -M0*c**2 (14A)

Moreover, the forcing of total energy to a true zero suggests that fundamental particles are not unitary, but exist as pairs, one member observable by us and the other unobservable, For instance, the actual physical properties of an electron pair would be complementary, i.e., the observable electron has rest mass > 0, spin -/+ ½, and charge -1, while it normally unobservable mate has rest mass < 0, spin +/- ½, and charge +1. Such particles would spontaneously annihilate if they were not forced to remain separated in 4 dimensional space. They are a fundamental entangled pair which must exist together separately, but fully cancel one another globally, as to rest mass, spin, and charge.

An interesting property of two spatially separated, rest mass pair is that they introduce the possibility of a classical repulsive fore between matter. For example, the full gravitational attractive force is now given as,

FG = – G+ [(M)*(M) + (-M)*(-M)] /R2 (14B)

or

FG = -2G+ (M)*(M) /R2 (14C)

suggesting that Newton’s gravitational constant is half of the reported value.

However, an innate repulsive force exists between two quantal pairs, as given by the equation,

FR = + 2G– (M)*(M) /Rn (14D)

Determination of the value of G– and the exponent upon distance need to be experimentally determined. Presently, we have no idea as to whether the distance of separation effects either of potentially observable values of either G+ or G– or the exponent of the repulsive force.

If I had to guess, I would postulate that the repulsive constant is normally one-half the value of the gravitational constant and ‘n = 2′ for normal stellar distances so that Newton’s Law is obeyed as to the overall force measured. However, if n is an inverse function of distance, beyond some unknown threshold, the repulsive force may overcome the gravitational force causing an expansion of the observable dimensions of the universe overall.

No more than a curiosity for the moment, but still of some theoretical interest.

End of Chapter 2