Month: June 2016

Psychoism, Occultism and the Astral (4)

SUBJECT I. Incubi and Succubi: A Psychoistic Analysis Of Conscious Sleep Paralysis

Part IV. Historical References to Incubi and Succubi

The phenomenon of conscious sleep paralysis, as a physiological event, is found in all cultures, ancient and modern. Naturally, the nature of the incubi and succubi differ greatly between cultures suggesting that the phenomenon is psychoistic and not an actual attack by independent entities existing in the Imago or Astral worlds.

First, historically, Christian exorcisms rituals, prayers, and Holy Water are effective with demons, but are ineffective to rid a person haunted by an incubus or succubus. This curiosity can be explained by simple psychological principles, such as cultural conditioning, unremembered episodic memories, excessive guilt and shame, and religious belief systems. We need not venture into explanations based upon the existence of ‘independent’ astral creatures appearing within the physical universe to understand interactions with incubi and succubi.

The mythologies of most cultures claim the existence of parahuman sexual predators, many analogous or similar to the incubus and succubus. In Arabic cultures, djinn are considered to be intelligent creatures created by God, some good and some bad, existing in another realm. The evil ones are considered responsible for sexual predation.

However, there are also a number of non-sexual variants which generally involve the demon pinning the person to the bed, strangling the victim, or suffocating the victim in some way.

Many of the medieval myths of the existence of incubi and succubi derive from Jewish mysticism and Kabbalah. For instance, the first succubus is Lilith, who is taught to have been Adam’s first wife. Lilith left Adam because she refused to be a submissive to Adam. She desired egalitarianism and independence. Secondary, to Adams inability to deal with Lilith, God was forced to create Eve. Lilith left the Garden of Eden and became a succubus after having sex with the archangel Samael.

One of the earliest mentions of an incubus comes from Mesopotamia on the Sumerians king’s list, c. 2400. Thereupon, Gilgamesh’s father, is considered to be a Lilu who disturbs and seduces women in their sleep. A similar demon, Lilitu, appears to men in their erotic dreams. Two other corresponding demons appear as well, Ardat lili, who visits men by night and begets ghostly children from them, and Irdu lili, who is known as a male counterpart to Ardat lili and visits women by night and begets from them. These demons were originally storm demons, but they eventually became regarded as night demons due to mistaken etymology.

The Southern African incubus demon is the Tokolosh. Chaste women place their beds upon bricks to deter the rather short fellows from attaining their sleeping forms.

In Swedish Folklore, there is the mara or mare, a spirit or goblin that rides on the chests of humans while they sleep, giving them nightmares. Belief in the mare goes back to the Norse Ynglinga saga from the 13th century, but the belief is probably even older.

In Assam, a north-eastern province of India it is mostly known as “pori” (meaning “angel”). According to the mythology, Pori comes to a man at night in his dreams. Gradually the victim’s health deteriorates and in some cases a tendency to commit suicide generates in him.

In Turkish culture, incubus is known as Karabasan. These beings are thought to be spirits or djinn. It can be seen or heard in the nightmare and a heavy weight is felt on the chest. Yet, people cannot wake up from that state. Some of the purported attractants are sleeping without adequately covering the body and eating in bed.

V. Conclusions

Without coexisting physical evidence so to substantiate a story of an incubus, succubus, or human perpetrator, one must presume that the experience, regardless of how real it appeared to the victim, is psychoistically generated. As far as the physical world is concerned, such attacks must be deemed delusional and hallucinatory experiences related to abnormalities of sleep architecture and learned conditioning.

However, the occurrence of a sleep-related, hallucinatory experiences, associated with internally consistent electrical activity of mentally-stable brains, does not establish the place of origin of such attack is physical. Such experience could be secondary to triggered recall of an actual traumatic, repressed memory fragment (most likely in a subdominant child ego state), fantasy, or an actual attack upon the kesdjan, astral, or dream body in the psychoistic ‘mirror world’ of the ‘dreamtime.’ Each of these possibilities would not produce physical signs.

In a later article, I will discuss more evidence for the existence of the dream or kesdjan body and how it exists in the dreamtime. For it is a fact, that our psychoistic identities exist in a virtual world and not the physical world (consistent with Kabbalah and other mystical systems). Moreover, each human mind exists in an aphysical realm which contains psychoistic creatures of uncertain origin.

Psychoism and the Astral Worlds(3)

Disclaimer:  This is a psychiatric article investigating ‘occult’ experiences.  To be useful such reports must contain explicit description of the mental states experienced. It is not intended for psychologically immature persons, but for consideration by mature parties. Part IV returns to explanatory comments.

Part III. Conscious Sleep Paralysis And The Experience Of Sexual Attack

Over the millennia, a compelling body of literature has been written describing nighttime encounters between human beings and an unrecognized species of intelligent creature. Based upon the reports, these creatures are not demonic, as they are not repulsed by Holy Water, the Cross, or Holy Incantations. Nor is the smell of sulphur present.

Presuming, such rapes and seductions are committed by animate creatures, not normally perceived by human beings, the most likely entity is the djinn (see Islamic metaphysics). Two alternative possibilities to be considered are manifestations of incarnate or discarnate astral bodies or overly vivid hallucinations which are mistakenly presumed by the dreamer to manifest in physical reality and so experienced such. We shall discuss this later in this paper.

As you will see, such descriptions are quite graphic as to detail and clearly felt real to the persons experiencing such nocturnal surprises.  The resilience of the vividness of such personal memories are of major interest.

Below is a typical report of a violation by an incubi of a sleeping young woman from15th century England. Such are lurid descriptions, but such portray the ‘reality’ of such experiences. I have chosen not to edit such, other than explanation of old words).

“For reasons unknown to myself, I didst awake sometime after midnight and didst findeth myself falsing (lying) on my back with mine own nightgown didst drawn above mine own breasts. Tis beest a dark and moonless night, mine own cubiculo didst seemeth did light with a diffuse dim yellowish light. Whither, didst did such arise, I didst knoweth naught.

I didst did tryeth to pulleth down mine own gown, but didst findeth, I couldst nay moveth mine own head, mine own arms, ‘r mine own legs. I didst caterwaul (cry) for my mother, but words didst fail to leaveth mine own tongue. Mine own corse (body) wast a-tingling and I didst feel ‘twere a-bouncing upon the bed–but, movement wast nay present.

A great terror didst arise within mine own heart, as I didst sense an odious presence in the cubiculo, a presence which didst nay intend me well. I didst smell a faint odor of animal amidst the smell of a sir (man). Two hands clasped mine own ankles strongly so to spreadeth wide my legs and expose mine own virgin groin. As mine own head layeth on top of two pillows, I couldst see above the hands a faint torso and head, visible and not visible. The head hadst long hair, goat horns and short beard. The creature wast comely.

The bed did bendeth as this creature didst did lie his torso upon mine own bed and betwixt mine own ankles. The creature didst release mine own ankles and beganeth to advance his head upward running his wet tongue ‘long the inside of my legs.’ I didst scream, but the cubiculo didst remain silent, but for the rapid breathing of the sir creature. I didst will mine own muscles to shoveth this vile creature whence, but to nay avail.

Then, he didst rudely arise from betwixt mine own inner thighs so to covereth mine own loins with his . He didst guide his hardness so t’wast at the entrance of mine own hollow and so didst force his way inside so to breaketh mine own maidenhead. It didst taketh me like the brute creature he beest, yelping as he didst spill his seed, and, then. didst vanish into the air like an apparition.

Mine own motor ability, thence didst returneth and I anon didst feeleth defiled and dirty. I didst behold the mine own bed wast nay with bloodstains or semen emissions. It didst seemeth too real to beest a dream. Such demonic visits hast never hath hath returned and so I hast never toldeth another, as I wast so ashamed of myself.”

A description of a seduction of a young man by a succubus is described below and is from a similar time period:

“I hadst been at the inn with mine own cater-cousins and didst becameth enamored with a red-hair’d wench who is’ t spake English with a Frank accent. The mistress didst seemeth to beest of valorous (fine or good) upbringing and wealth. The lady didst did have a most wondrous chuckle and a most gentle touch and wast well didst educate. Yond mistress name wast Lilith. The mistress and I didst malt-worm many a glass of hearty ale.

Mine own cater-cousins hadst hath returned to the castle and this mistress tooketh me to yond (that) mistress cubiculo. The mistress didst pull off mine own robes and I didst drop onto the bed on mine own back. The mistress stripp’d nak’d and didst possess large red nipples yond this mistress didst lodge into mine own that from which we speak so to beest suckled strongly. Rudely, the lady straddl’d me so situate my mine own member into yond mistress hollow. The mistress didst cometh again and again as I wast still hard for many hours. At last the mistress tooketh mine own semen and I didst passeth out from exhaustion.

At which hour, I did awake I dist findeth yond I wast in the barn falsing on some hay and a ragg’d dress didst lie beside me. I didst find I wast did cover in nail scratches and hadst a lacking valor (terrible) headache.

The wench wast nay a Frank mistress, but a succubus who is’t hadst drawn much life out from mine own corse. I didst dress and wenteth to the Priest to confess mine own sin.”

Reading such descriptions, there can be no doubt that both participants experienced the rape and seduction, as being an actual physical event. An unshakeable belief in the actuality of these kinds of experiences is common, even though, no physical evidence is present collaborating a physical attack.

Based upon much data from hypnotic studies, such experiences seem to occur primarily in persons, commonly characterized in the medical hypnotic literature as ‘fantasy-prone individuals.’ Extensive hypnotic research has demonstrated that fantasy-prone individuals are capable of displaying negative and positive hallucinations, which are resistant to modification.

A negative hallucination is defined as the visual disappearance of an actual physical object or entity present in the room from the awareness of the hallucinator. Clearly, the object or entity is processed by the individual’s visual system, but the CNS fails to back-project the sensory data onto the object or entity, hence, being ‘invisible.’ Other persons continue to see such object or entity.

A positive hallucination occurs whenever an individual, employing endogenous visual memory, generates and projects into his or her physical environment a self-created object or entity into his or her physical environment so to interact with such as an actual physical entity. Under normal conditions, none of the experimenters will see or feel the presence of such imago.

A most curious thing about such positive hallucinations is that the experimenter has a most difficult time trying to convince the subject that what he or she sees is not real. as the individuals brain will change the image so to correspond with the normal requirements of physicality. Such events qualify as delusions in psychiatric circles.

Subsequently, unless there are physical signs of sexual or physical abuse in the dreamer, a cautious investigator must ascribe the experience to overly vivid and lifelike hallucinations in a person who is still asleep, but believes himself or herself to be normally awake.

Psychoism and the Astral Worlds (2)

Part II. Psychoistic Considerations

Modern psychology insists that all psychological experiences, awake or dreaming, arise solely from the neural processing of the human brain. Psychoistic psychology accepts the premise that under normal conditions our visual images, feelings, and experiences are generated via our central neural processing system.

However, psychoism recognizes that the episodic electrical activity of both neural and glial cells generate photons (boson exchange quanta responsible for the electro-weak force) so to produce a temporally and spatially variant electromagnetic fields approximating the architectonics of the central nervous system. The continuous presence and activity of an architectonic electromagnetic field provides a simple explanation as how ‘mind affects the brain,’ but fails to prove that the physical brain creates the images we experience.

It fails to explain the exact mechanism as to how the brain creates our mental worlds, though, we believe the brain possesses one or more spatial operators (see earlier blogs).

Unfortunately, electromagnetic field theory cannot explain how higher animals, including humans, perceive and interact with objects within the physical world via our mental imagery.

The Institute surmises that incoming visual information (spatial extent and sensory qualia) is processed by central spatial distribution operators (sites in brain unknow) and back-projected accurately onto the source objects. Exactly, how 3d spatial data are converted into changing 2d arrays so to retain depth perception (parallax) for later back-projection of a 3d virtual image onto the source physical remains unexplained. It simply provides a possible scientific explanation of the mechanisms needed for neurologically complex machines to successfully negotiate the physical world. Such activity not requiring existence of an aphysical mental world.

While, the operation of neural spatial operators may explain how the physical body interacts so perfectly with the physical world, it does not explain our common experience of the existence of an aphysical mental world–such as seen during daytime fantasizing or nocturnal dreaming. Establishing that the brain is capable of activating sensory memory (perception and memory utilize the same neural pathways) and applying parallax so to reconstruct objects in space does not help us, for where does the reconstruction exist?

The Institute contends that the most parsimonious explanation is that closely overlaid upon well-established physical quanta are aphysical quanta (discussed previously), manifesting as an aphysical image space correlating accurately with a our common physical space.

Subsequently, our brains processes physical spatial data so to create an operational map for dealing with the physical world (for which images are redundant) and an operational map (a virtual image-based world) for the mind to observe and manipulate within (including modification of the architectonic electromagnetic field so to affect the physical nervous system).

Whether or not, humans possess an aphysical brain is an impossible question as all living persons possess a human brain and all metaphysic experiences register within our physical brain. If some humans survive physical death, which the Institute acknowledges as proven, interaction with their essential nature, kesdjan or higher existential corpora, requires the operation of our human brain as a host.

The Institute contends that the human mind is not based upon physical quanta, quarks, leptons, and neutrinos, but is composed of nongravitating fundamental quanta (denoted by the terms ‘atons and ptahons’) which coexist with material quanta. Moreover, as the aphysical world is coexistent with the spatial extent of the physical world, human minds are intimately interconnected by such fundamental quanta (at an unconscious level generally) and so share common archetypes, sacred images, common feelings and responses. The totality of an individual’s mental life is the sum of his or her personal life experiences and those of the human conjoint species mind, or conjoint psyche. Such commonality being genetic, shared social learning, and aphysical.

Our theoretical position is an advance over that stated by Carl Jung towards the end of his brilliant career. Each came to understand that the human experience cannot be completely understood or explained using only physicality, the physical universe with it’s biological creatures are embodied with a much richer aphysical universe.

In other words, human minds are not totally separate from each other, but, in actuality, are interconnected so to share semantic (factual) and aesthetic (from Gk aisthetikos ‘sentient’, from aistheta ‘perceptible things’, from aisthesthai ‘perceive’ feeling) information.

I do not have time to go into much detail as to psychoistic psychology, or transcendental psychology, but do need to explain why the intruder or malevolent entity is so strongly experienced.

Psychoism, Occultism, And The Astral Worlds



After perusing the various blogs and comments published upon the AMORC blog page, I decided to begin a new series of articles discussing the fundamental structure and agents operating within the Imago World or Astral Plane. Naturally, such a study delves into the inhabitants of the world of Magick and the Occult, e.g., djinn, elementals, mythical beasts, angels, demons, and kesdjan or astral bodies. I believe that many members will be drawn to such a study by personal interest, as it is not an intended course of study in our Order. The material presented will be didactic and not ritualistic and so quite harmless to the psyche.

I do hope that rational exploration will separate fact from errant fantasy so to provide an accurate picture of the fundamental nature and purpose of the Astral World. The Astral World is an actuality, though virtual, and is the place where our ego states and ergoegotic centers live. Our existence within the physical world is solely where our corpuses reside so to provide sensory information and images for us to exist in the psychic world. If such was untrue, we would possess, but a single plane of existence. One thing Deity is not, is inefficient.

Though, based upon years of personal experience in education, the more unusual the students’ fantasy, the more difficult for the educators to dispel, particularly, metaphysical ones.

In any case . . . I shall give it a try. Much later, I shall present some thoughts as to how to model Omneity scientifically and transrationally. As usual, I shall keep unnecessary information to a minimum and present at a mature level.

SUBJECT I. Incubi and Succubi: A Psychoistic Analysis Of Conscious Sleep Paralysis

Part I: Modern Psychological Explanations

The experience of awaking from a sound or fitful sleep into daily awareness happens at least once a day to each of us. After a few seconds for reorientation, we find ourselves in our awakened state and either turn over or get out of bed. In truth, it takes a few minutes for the brain to be fully alert, as shown by the little errors which occur in our awakening routines, such as forgetting whether you brushed your teeth or not . . . No big deal, right? No, sometimes it is!

Occasionally, a percentage of the population (population-specific prevalence varies from 10 to 30%) will find themselves awaking from a dream into what is perceived as a conscious state and finding his or her body paralyzed. The first thought is, “I know I am awake, but I am unable to move no matter how I try. My body is paralyzed. I can feel my body and I know where all my parts reside, but am prevented from voluntary movement. I can breathe and my heart beats. I feel like my body is jumping upon my bed or I am floating above it.”

For the psychically inclined, it sometime feels as if the astral body is attempting to separate, or has separated, from the physical.

Soon, strong feelings of dread, foreboding, and overwhelming fear quickly arise, which if not addressed, may include feelings that one is dying. Such fear is self-sustaining, as long as attention is focused upon the body, rather than upon the surroundings.

As soon as one calms himself or herself sufficiently, so to study what is transpiring, the physiology of ‘conscious sleep paralysis’ proves quite interesting. For instance, even in a darkened room on a moonless night without streetlights, you will be able to observe the objects within the room quite clearly. The illumination of the room is quite unusual for though no lamps are lite, light pervades the space everywhere, being dim and colorless (occasionally reddish or yellowish in hue). While, you can see, such seeing differs from normal waking sight and is much more dreamlike.

Often, persons experiencing conscious sleep paralysis feel the ‘presence of as an evil, malevolent force or personality’ close by. The appearance of such malevolence differing between persons depending upon religious upbringing, cultural mythology, and exogenous and endogenous fear motifs.

Commonly, people will relate that an entity was present with them, but rather dimly seen. For instance, it is almost transparent, but felt solid. The entity may assume the form of an animal, a person, a mythological creature (such as a satyr), a pagan god, demon, or other nonhuman creature. The experience of the presence of mythic and demonic creatures is a well-established cultural phenomena, the cast of appearing to people in the night are ‘legion.’

The ability to see during an episode of conscious sleep paralysis is quite unlike normal seeing. For instance, descriptions of the light within the room, the objects therein, the abnormal appearance of unusual entities suggest that the individual, though his or her eyes may be open, in actuality, is not seeing via the normal visual pathways, but is creating dream images from his or her sensory cortex which are mistaken for external data, convincing the person that he or she is awake. Such a conjecture is consistent with my personal studies of conscious sleep paralysis over many years.

Moreover, the wide variation in the descriptions of the appearance of entities perceived amongst populations are most consistent with creatures reconstructed from information gathered during childhood and stored within semantic memory during which the individual experienced actual or perceived threats to ego or body linked to feelings of strong foreboding, fear, or anxiety.

Sometimes, unremembered episodes of childhood sexual abuse or drug rapes will reappear during dreaming with the perpetrator disguised as a different persona. How common is unknown, but is a possibility which needs to be explored in treatment.

In psychoistic terminology, such experiential states are called ‘state-dependent, multimodal semantic memory reconstructions,’ or ‘SMSMR.’

Fear or sexual dream images can occur as one begins to enter into sleep. In this borderline state of semi-awareness, people commonly experience auditory and visual hallucinations, mostly forgotten upon fully waking or soon afterwards. Many persons do recall hearing music or seeing things in near-sleep states at some point in their lives.

Typical examples, include, feelings of being crushed or suffocated, electric “tingles” or “vibrations”, speech and other noises, the presence of a visible or invisible entity, and intense emotions of fear, euphoria, or orgasmic feelings. Such experiences seem absolutely real and vivid. Humanlike and animal creatures, often shadowy or blurry, are often present in hypnagogic hallucinations, more so than other hallucinogenic states. This may be a relic of an ancient instinct to detect predatory animals.

The combination of sleep paralysis and hypnagogic hallucination could easily cause someone to believe that a “demon was holding them down”. Nocturnal arousal etc. could be explained away by creatures causing otherwise guilt-producing behavior. Add to this the common phenomena of nocturnal arousal and nocturnal emission, and all the elements required to believe in an incubus are present.

Personally, when I was young, I sometimes experienced the feeling of waking up in a normal dream which I perceived as a threat. The dream continued as expected, but I was both in and out of the dreamscape, providing an inner locus of control. My experiences of conscious sleep paralysis exhibited the same feeling of being awake, as I believed I was not dreaming at first. After, a few experiences, I determined that I was still dreaming during conscious sleep paralysis.

Much later, I came to the conclusion that that my personal awareness was unitary, though possessed multiple modes of seeing (in the psychic sense), and field of experience did differ between awaking and dreaming.  I have never been bothered since.

Creation and It’s Energies (54)

The book remains uncompleted and this is the last post.  Tomorrow, we start a new topic.

In Chapter 2, I discussed the concepts of force, energy and work. Here I am going to finish that discussion by considering the several dimensions over which forces can be applied so to create work in the service of anabolic transformation.

The subject of dimensions is frequently discussed in Fourth Way literature. Both Ouspensky and Bennett (and their students) dedicated a significant amount of time to trying to understand and apply knowledge of this most important subject to the Work.1,2,3 I am going to continue this tradition.

The English word, dimension, is derived from the Latin roots di + metiri, meaning to measure out. Though many definitions are listed, the one most appropriate to our needs is: an attribute or status that may be seen as inhering in or characterizing an abstract thing, an aspect. In other words, dimensions are the inherent avenues provided for the expression of the essentially vibratory energy of the universe as it moves under cosmic law, always directed by cosmic will.

This particular definition coincides with the Hermetic notion that the underlying foundation of Creation is mental, ‘All is Mind’. For the Hermetic philosopher, the universe manifests because the First Cause ‘assigned it dimension’ so to differentiate one portion from another.

Dimensions can also be characterized as the limits placed upon the set of manifestations possible in the System, existence or the universe. For example, all life forms move invariably from birth to death without exception. Heat flows from a higher temperature to a lower.

Commonly, people recognize two discrete dimensions defining their existence: space (length, width, height) and time. Eventhough, mathematically, every point in the universe can be related to a common spatial origin and time, i.e., (x,y,z,t), the great majority of persons do not really the understand the words space and time. Even the great Christian scholar, St. Augustine wrote in his book, CONFESSIONS,

“But what in discourse do we mention more familiarly and knowingly than time? And we understand, when we speak of it; we understand also, when we hear of it spoken of by another. What then is time? If no one asks me, I know; if I wish to explain it to one who asketh, I know not.”

Previously we spoke of the conflict between Boltzmann and Poincare over whether time is reversible or irreversible. The situation is no different with space.

In order to make some sense out of this quagmire, I am going to outline the dimensional parameters of the visible universe in a straightforward and logical manner beginning with the concept of time.

I want you to imagine in your minds eye a Cartesian coordinate system of three perpendicular or orthoganal axes (see figure 37). Please label the vertical y-axis with the word, clock time.

Clock time is exactly what it says. Clock time represents the dynamic, reversible, cyclic time of Poincaré, Bohr and Einstein I spoke of previously. Clock time is the experiential dimension represented the recurring cycles of any repetitive process. Clock time can be represented by the metered motion in space of a second hand about an axis of a very accurate stopwatch. Clock time can be expressed by the period of duration of consciousness required for a particular chemical reaction to change color. Clock time can be of biological origin.

Choice, Consciousness And Quantum Mechanics

Having looked pragmatically at consciousness and its manifestations in macroscopic life from the Gurdjieffian perspective, it is useful to move onto a more fundamental analysis based upon the principles of quantum mechanics. In a sense, we again move from the macrocosmos to the microcosmos, from events describable in terms of large-scale human behaviors to local events occurring within specific portions of the human brain. In other words, we enter the confusing domain of the mind-body problem!

Understanding what appears to be a mind-brain dichotomy has troubled philosophers, priests and scientists at least since the time of Descartes. Rene Descartes, a 17th century French philosopher, divided all of nature into two essentially independent realms, thought and matter, thought did not directly affect the motion of material objects. The only place where thought was allowed to affect matter was in the ‘seat of the soul’, the pineal gland. Everywhere else, the motion of material objects was governed only by unmutable mathematical laws.



2. Ouspensky, PD, IN SEARCH OF THE MIRACULOUS, Harcourt, Brace & World, New York, 1949.

3. Blake, AGE, SEMINAR ON TIME, Claymont Communications, Charles Town, West Virginia, 1980.

Creation and It’s Energies (53)


In this Chapter, I will develop a unified concept for understanding the existence and evolution of our universe. Please remember that this is only a single point of view and cannot be accepted as gospel truth.

I will begin the discussion with the concept of hierarchy and its importance for understanding the progressive evolution of order.

The Concept of Hierarchy

Related though distinct from scale is the notion of hierarchy. A hierarchy is an arrangement of objects by rank, power, complexity or quality of expression (i.e., the angelic hierarchy of Dionysus the Areopagite, the twelve levels of energy discussed in Chapter 3). A hierarchy differs from a scale in that it represents more than a simple arrangement of objects in proportion to size or magnitude. For example, a living cell is of higher hierarchical rank than the Milky Way galaxy because it displays not only the property of requiring the presence of simpler elements within itself for its existence, but also the the property of life; even though in scale the cell is smaller and could not exist without the galaxy.

Hierarchies exist because of the tendency for complex, dynamical systems to arrange themselves spontaneously into rank order, independent of the nature of their fundamental units, i.e., biological, sociological, physical, chemical or artificial. This quality of spontaneous creation of ‘new’ systems with properties not explicitly residing in the individual elements themselves, but arising solely through a specific arrangements and interactions of these elements, is an example of ‘emergent’ properties. Emergent properties are properties of expression which cannot be exactly explained through static examination of system elements. For example, life cannot be completely explained by chemistry. Man could not exist or become self-conscious without the universe being as immense as it is.4

The ‘hierarchical ordering principle’ is readily observed throughout Creation, even though it’s nature, method of manifestation and source cannot be easily defined or mathematically expressed exactly. The hierarchical ordering principle, HOP, is seen in the operation of the Second Law of thermodynamics and its operation in the evolution of far-from-equilibrium systems. The HOP is responsible for the evolution of advancing consciousness in the material universe.

In order to better appreciate the HOP, it is useful to digress into and immerse ourselves within the field of thermodynamics.

As noted previously, thermodynamics is the science describing how real systems evolve in the macroscopic world of day-to-day things. Thermodynamic principles determine the ‘arrow of time–the direction of change’, i.e., heat only flows from hot to cold resevoirs, living creatures are born, mature and die, dynamical systems move or are attracted towards specific states of stability , avoiding other less fortunate states.

The simplest place to begin is by discussing the thermodynamic concepts of system and surroundings. In thermodynamics, the universe is divided into at least two mathematical spaces by a boundary separating one space from the other. Within thermodynamic space, the system is defined as the non-infinite space enclosed within the boundary; the surroundings are defined as the space (finite or infinite) enclosing the system. All thermodynamic relations are concerned with how the system changes either because of inherent instability of its initial state or as the result of energy-matter exchanges with the surroundings.

Systems can be defined as isolated, closed or open depending upon the nature of their interaction with the surroundings. An isolated system is one for which the system cannot exchange energy or matter with the surroundings.


Creation and It’s Energies (52)

Scale In The World Of Objective Time

IN SEARCH OF THE MIRACULOUS, Ouspensky devotes a large portion of Chapter XVI to developing a “table of time in different cosmos”. This table follows from comments made to Ouspensky during a discussion of dimensions with Gurdjieff,

“There is a great deal of material in what you have just said, but the material must be elaborated. If you can find out to elaborate the material you now have, you will understand a great deal that has not occurred to you till now. For example, take note that time is different in different cosmoses. And it can be calculated exactly, that is, it is possible to establish exactly how time in one cosmos is related to the time of another cosmos. I will add only one thing more: time is breath–try to understand this. Sleep and waking of living beings and plants, that is twenty-four hours, or day and night, constitute the breath of organic life.”

As clearly outlined within IN SEARCH OF THE MIRACULOUS, Ouspensky begins his efforts to understand time by asking himself the question, ‘What is breath?’. He answers three seconds. Proceeding further, he eventually develops a table having four rows of hierarchical units of living time, i.e., time periods necessary to perceive mental impressions, to breathe, to complete a rotation of the earth (day and night) and to experience physical life, listing the several cosmoses as column headings. Ouspensky’s original work should be referred to.

Based upon his analysis, Ouspensky states that for each cosmos, one scale is related to the one above and the one below by a factor of 30,000. Unfortunately, Ouspensky does not speculate upon the source or nature of the observed factor. My purpose here is to complete Ouspensky’s work, again using the law of correspondence. Is there any known cosmological cycle approximately equal to 30,000?

It turns out that there is a common cosmological cycle whose duration is approximately 30,000. This cycle is that of the precession of the equinoxes (1), that is, the progression of equinoctial points whereby each point reaches a given meridian progressively sooner than a given star in successive passages. This motion results in completion of a cone figure by earth’s axis in about 26,000 years and in a westward movement of the vernal equinox along the zodiac (2). One key suggesting that this is natural unit to chose as a time basis is the fact that the spring and autumn equinoxes are defined as those days upon which the day and night are of equal length.

Making this assumption, let us again analyze Ouspensky’s table of time in the different cosmoses, taking day and night as our starting point rather than the length of a complete breath. Our first problem is trying to determine the identities of the immediately higher and lower levels.

First, we note that the rotational period of the earth about its axis causes two distinct experiences or periods for plants and animals, differentiated solely by the presence or absence of light (day and night). During the day plants imbibe carbon dioxide and absorb sunlight so to produce simple carbohydrates using the chlorophyll system. During the night they exhale oxygen and complete complex anabolic work. Men and animals are active during one period and sleep during the other.

Second, we note that the breath is composed of both an inhalation and an exhalation (actually there is also a slight pause which we include with the exhalation phase). Like typical day and night periods (except at the equinoxes), the durations of inhalation and exhalation are not constant. In fact, based upon measurements I have made, the ratio of the times of exhalation to inhalation for a resting adult is 3:2. Typical periods are: inhalation 1.3 seconds, exhalation 2.0 seconds. This results in a minute breathing rate of about 18.

The Vedas often speak of the duration of one day and night of Brahma as being composed of equal out breaths and in breaths of Brahma. Each one being composed of 1000 Mahayugas (4.32 billion years, approximate age of the earth). The out breath represents involution, the in breath evolution. The Vedas also speak of day as being the time of existence and night as the time of nonexistence.

Third, we note that the expected duration of a man’s life as taught by the ancient mystery schools to be 144 years. In the event of premature transition due to poor health habits, the remainder of a man’s time is spent as a discarnate entity. Time may be spent asleep, in heaven or hell or in school (3). Generally, current man spends about half his time incarnate.

Using the above information we can begin to establish the duration for the first levels important to man as the microcosm. Assuming that we are interested solely in the situation for a typical man (lives for 70+ years) physically incarnating, we can take the total number of seconds in a day (86,400) and divide it by the total time it takes to take a breath (3.285), we get the factor 26,298. Applying this factor gives 72 years as the lifetime of a man, and 125 microseconds as the duration of the next smaller interval. These values are close to Ouspensky’s.

Most curiously, the average time period for procession of the equinoxes over long time periods is quite close to 26, 298, providing credence to the number used by mystics of 25, 920. Notice that both reduce to 9 under theosophic reduction which shares the same position as zero in our decimal system.

Using the factor we can complete the table (figure 36) down to the smallest time period of the cosmos, the Planck moment, 10**-44 seconds (a factor of 2pi**0.5 less than value used earlier) which is nine levels smaller than the time for a brain event. Each level in the table, smaller than a brain event, represents a typical lifetime for an event happening upon a microscopic or subparticle scale. Each level is labeled with a related phenomena.

Allowing nine uppers levels (including the breath) gives a maximum value of 10**35 seconds. Higher levels are labeled up to the age of the universe. Beyond this, no name can be assigned nor its significance determined.

Figure 36

Time Durations For Creation

Space time foam           2.07 x 10**-44 sec  (actual Planck’s time is 5.39 x 10**-44 sec)
GUT era                            5.46 x 10-**40  sec
Inflation era                   1.44 x 10**-35 sec
X particle decay             3.78 x 10**-31 sec
Quarks – Leptons         9.93 x 10-**27  sec
Nuclear events              2.61 x 10-**22  sec
X- rays                             6.87 x 10-**18  sec
Infrared heat                  1.81 x 10**-13  sec
Radio waves                    4.75 x 10**-9 sec
Brain event                      1.25 x 10-**4 sec
Breath                               3.28 sec
Day and night                 8.64 x 10**4 sec
Man’s life                      72 yr
Man’s cosmic life          1.89 x 10**6   yr
.Hubble time                   4.98 x 10**10 yr
1.30 x 10**15  yr
3.44 x 10**19  yr
9.05 x 10**23  yr
2.38 x 10**28 yr

Moreover, the overall range of values shown in the table spans eighty orders of magnitude, reminiscent of the large number coincidence.

For completeness, I am also going to add the time scale of the Vedas for the lifetime of a Brahma. These are shown in figure 37.

Referring to the two figures one notices that the man’s cosmic life is about equal to that of a world cycle. A day and night of Brahma is about equal to the age of the current universe. The projected lifetime of the current universe based upon the Vedic scriptures is 340 trillion years.

Figure 37

Vedic Time Periods

Mahayuga (world cycle)                 4.32 x 10**6 years
Day and night of Brahma              8.64 x 10**9 years
Year of Brahma                                 3.12 x 10**12 years
Lifetime of Brahma                         3.41 x 10**14 years

Notes: Where one year of Brahma has 365.25 days, lifetime of Brahma is 108 years.

1. In astronomy, either of two points of intersection of the ecliptic and the celestial equator. Night and day are of equal length over the entire earth on dates when the sun’s center crosses the celestial equator southward (vernal or spring equinox, about March 21) or northward (autumnal equinox, about September 23). Shown are reference points for the heavens as projected upon the inside surface of an infinite sphere with the earth at its center. Also shown is the projection of the earth’s axis as the precessional circle.

The celestial poles are the projections of the northern and southern poles of the earth, the celestial equator is the projection of the earth’s equator. The ecliptic is the apparent path of the sun through the heavens.

2. Several other cycles mentioned in religious literature appear related to a period of about 26,000 years. For example, in Zoroastrianism the time period of battle of Ahura Mazda and Ahriman is 12,000 years. In Vedic sources, the length of one Mahayuga is 12,000 heavenly years (432,000 human years). As an aside, the distance of our solar system from the center of our galaxy, the Milky Way, is about 30,000 light-years.

3. These concepts are discussed in many places, including hermetic and yogi sources. I recommend the book by Yogi Ramacharaka, THE LIFE BEYOND DEATH, Yogi Publication Society, Chicago, Illinois, 1909.

4. Barrow JD, Tipler FJ, THE ANTHROPIC COSMOLOGICAL PRINCIPLE, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1986.